APA (American Psychological Association Style, hereinafter referred to as APA) is a system of rules for presenting academic documents by a group of researchers to set a standard of language use. Currently, APA is widely recognized in the world and is used by many universities.
An important rule of APA is that citations must include the author’s name and the time when the author gave that information. Following are some information I give you to know how to cite and do not worry about the plagiarism when “write my essay”.
Citing an author or group of authors
Works of two authors: Name both authors in “signal phrases” or in parentheses whenever you quote. Use the word “and” between the author’s name in the text and use the “&” brackets.
Research by Wegener and Petty (1994) shows that …
(Wegener & Petty, 1994)
Works of three to five authors: List all authors in “signal phrases” or in parentheses when you cite the first source. Use the word “and” between the author’s name in the text and use the “&” brackets.
(Kernis, Cornell, Sun, Berry, & Harlow, 1993)
In the next quotation, use only the last name of the first author followed by “et al.” in signal phrases or in parentheses. “Et al.” is an acronym for et alii meaning “and others” or “associates”.
(Kernis et.al., 1993) / (Kernis et al., 1993)
Six or more authors: Use the first author’s name followed by et al. in signal phrases or in parentheses.
Harris et al. (2001) argued … / Harris et al. (2001) argue …
(Harris et al., 2001) / (Harris et al., 2001)
Anonymous author: If the work has no author, cite the source by its title in the signal phrase or use the first or two words in parentheses. Books and reports are italicized or underlined; The titles of articles, chapters, and web pages are enclosed in quotation marks.
A similar study was conducted when students learned how to format research papers (“Using APA,” 2001).
Note: In rare cases, “Anonymous” is used for the author, considering it as the author’s name (Anonymous, 2001). In the reference list (at the end of the thesis, essay), you also use the name “Anonymous” as the author’s name.
Organize as an author: If the author is an organization or a government agency, mention the organization in the signal or citation phrase when starting to cite the source.
According to the American Psychological Association (2000), …
If the organization has a well-known acronym, include the abbreviation in square brackets for the first time the source is cited and then only use the abbreviations in future citations.
First quote: (World Trade Organization [WTO], 2000)
The following quotations: (WTO, 2000)
Two or more constructions at the same time: When your sub citations include two or more works, arrange them in the same way as they appear in the list of references (i.e. in alphabetical order), separated by semicolons.
(Berndt, 2002; Harlow, 1983)
The author’s last name: To avoid confusion, use the first initials that have last names.
(E. Johnson, 2001; L. Johnson, 1998)
Two or more works by the same author in the same year: If you have two sources by the same author in the same year, use lowercase letters (a, b, c) with the year to arrange entries in the reference list. Use lowercase letters with five in the quote in the text.
Berndt’s study (1981a) illustrates that …
Introduction, Precondition, Preface, and Conclusion: When quoting Introduction, Precondition in a paragraph, you cite the author and the corresponding year as usual.
(Funk & Kolln, 1992)
Personal communication: For interviews, letters, e-mails, and other person-to-person communications, you cite the name of the communicator, the fact that it is personal communication, and the date of the communication. Do not include personal information in the reference list.
(E. Robbins, personal information, January 4, 2001).
A. P. Smith also stated that many of her students had difficulty with APA style (personal communication, November 3, 2002).
Cite indirect sources
If you use the source cited in another source, name the source (primary source) in your signal phrase and include the secondary source in parentheses. In the list of references, list secondary sources. You need to notice this kind of citation. Sometimes the situation “I don’t know how to cite it when I write my essay” appears and makes you confused. Please see some examples below to understand more about secondary citations.
Johnson argues that … (as cited in Smith, 2003, p. 102).
Note: When quoting documents in parentheses, separate sections with commas, as above. When I write my essay, I usually try to find the original documents and cite the source.
If possible, cite an electronic document like any other using the author type.
Kenneth (2000) explains …
Unknown author and unknown date: If there is no author or date is given, use the title in your signal phrase or the first one or two first words in parentheses and use the abbreviation “n.d.” is “no date”.
Another student study found that students who tutored were more successful (“Keoring and APA,” n.d.)
In the example above, “Keoring and APA,” is the title of the article, so it should be enclosed in quotation marks. The general rule of APA is that the author’s name does not need quotes, the title needs quotes. Unless “no date” is available, there’s always a citation time. Therefore when I write my essay I always notice to make sure that I have a correct citation.
The source has no page numbers
When an electronic resource lacks a page number, you should try to include information that can help readers find the cited text. When an electronic document has numbered paragraphs, use the abbreviation “para.” followed by the number of paragraphs. “Para.” is the abbreviation of “paragraph”.
(Hall, 2001, para. 5)
If the paragraphs are not numbered and the document includes the title, provide the appropriate title, and specify the paragraph in the title. Note that in some electronic resources, such as Web pages, people can use the Find function in their browser to find any quotes you cite.
According to Smith (1997), … (“Mind over Matter section,” paragraph 6)
The Mind over Matter section is the article title on the website and paragraph 6 is the paragraph you assign to it by counting yourself.
Note: Never use page numbers of web pages that you print. Different computers print web pages with different page numbers.
Above is some information that can help you to give quotation and avoid plagiarism when you “write my essay”. Hopefully, you can consider and never worry about “how to cite when I write my essay” anymore.